What is a Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD)?
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) cover about fifteen disorders affecting the muscles, tendons and nerves of limbs and the spine. These are multi-factor diseases with an occupational component.
MSDs appear as pain but also, in the upper limbs, as stiffness, clumsiness or loss of strength.(ref.#2)
Which body parts are affected?
MSDs are related to excessive workload. They begin as pain or unpleasant sensations that are reversible at the beginning.
What occurs when workload is sustained over time?
If these loads are sustained over time, the body’s ability to recover may be exceeded and established injuries will appear: (ref.#3)
- Swelling of tendons (especially shoulders, elbows, forearms and wrists).
- Degeneration of vertebral joints (cervical vertebrae and spine).
- Compression of nerves (carpal tunnel syndrome, sciatica, etc).
- Muscle damage (especially in the neck and shoulders).
In 2014, 90.2% of MSDs affected the upper limbs. (ref.#4)